Validator Election


Core's validator election adheres to the following mechanics:
  1. 1.
    Hybrid scores are calculated for all validators in the network. The function to calculate the scores is defined as:
    S = rHp/tHpm + rSp/tSp ∗ (1 − m) (1)
    rHp = hash power delegated to validator, which is measured via the count of BTC blocks produced
    tHp = total hash power on Core
    rSp = stake delegated to validator, which is measured via the amount of CORE token delegated
    tSp = total stake on Core
    m = is a dynamic weighting that adjusts over time to ensure a smooth transition during ramp up
  2. 2.
    Select the 21 validators with the highest hybrid scores to be included in the validator set.
  3. 3.
    The election takes place at the end of each round to pick up validators for the next round via the mechanism above.

Block Production

Satoshi Plus validator election is designed to select validators deriving from both the PoW and DPoS methods outlined above. After election, the mechanism sorts all validators and produces blocks in a round-robin manner. By round robin, we mean that every validator has a chance to produce a block in a strict ordering, from 1-21 ranked by hybrid score before it restarts again from the top. Additionally, by limiting the number of validators, Satoshi Plus offers a higher transaction rate and increased scalability. Furthermore, this mechanism provides additional resistance to various attacks with improved efficiency and tolerance of a certain number of Byzantine players (malicious or hacked).

Validator Self Regulation

Core contains slashing and jailing mechanisms to disincentivize malicious behavior by validators in each round. While producing blocks, the existing Core validators check if any current validator has been jailed periodically. If so, they will update the validator set after an epoch period. For example, if Core produces a block every three seconds and the epoch period is 200 blocks, then the current validator set will check and update the next epoch’s validator set in 600 seconds (10 minutes). The design of the jailing is to exclude illbehaving validators from consensus activities in order to enhance network security and keep TPS stable.